Syntax

Lexical syntax

Comments

Single line comments start with // and block comments are enclosed in /* and */ and can be nested.

Keywords

  • include
  • contract
  • datatype
  • namespace
  • type
  • record
  • payable
  • private
  • stateful
  • entrypoint
  • function
  • import
  • let
  • switch
  • if
  • elif
  • else
  • true
  • false
  • mod

Tokens

  • Id = [a-z_][A-Za-z0-9_']* identifiers start with a lower case letter.
  • Con = [A-Z][A-Za-z0-9_']* constructors start with an upper case letter.
  • QId = (Con\.)+Id qualified identifiers (e.g. Map.member)
  • QCon = (Con\.)+Con qualified constructor
  • TVar = 'Id type variable (e.g 'a, 'b)
  • Int = [0-9]+(_[0-9]+)*|0x[0-9A-Fa-f]+(_[0-9A-Fa-f]+)* integer literal with optional _ separators
  • Bytes = #[0-9A-Fa-f]+(_[0-9A-Fa-f]+)* byte array literal with optional _ separators
  • String string literal enclosed in " with escape character \
  • Char character literal enclosed in ' with escape character \
  • AccountAddress base58-encoded 32 byte account pubkey with ak_ prefix
  • ContractAddress base58-encoded 32 byte contract address with ct_ prefix
  • OracleAddress base58-encoded 32 byte oracle address with ok_ prefix
  • OracleQueryId base58-encoded 32 byte oracle query id with oq_ prefix

Valid string escape codes are

Escape ASCII
\b 8
\t 9
\n 10
\v 11
\f 12
\r 13
\e 27
\xHexDigits HexDigits

See the identifier encoding scheme for the details on the base58 literals.

Layout blocks

Sophia uses Python-style layout rules to group declarations and statements. A layout block with more than one element must start on a separate line and be indented more than the currently enclosing layout block. Blocks with a single element can be written on the same line as the previous token.

Each element of the block must share the same indentation and no part of an element may be indented less than the indentation of the block. For instance

contract Layout =
  function foo() = 0  // no layout
  function bar() =    // layout block starts on next line
    let x = foo()     // indented more than 2 spaces
    x
     + 1              // the '+' is indented more than the 'x'

Notation

In describing the syntax below, we use the following conventions: - Upper-case identifiers denote non-terminals (like Expr) or terminals with some associated value (like Id). - Keywords and symbols are enclosed in single quotes: 'let' or '='. - Choices are separated by vertical bars: |. - Optional elements are enclosed in [ square brackets ]. - ( Parentheses ) are used for grouping. - Zero or more repetitions are denoted by a postfix *, and one or more repetitions by a +. - Block(X) denotes a layout block of Xs. - Sep(X, S) is short for [X (S X)*], i.e. a possibly empty sequence of Xs separated by Ss. - Sep1(X, S) is short for X (S X)*, i.e. same as Sep, but must not be empty.

Declarations

A Sophia file consists of a sequence of declarations in a layout block.

File ::= Block(TopDecl)

TopDecl ::= ['payable'] 'contract' Con '=' Block(Decl)
       | 'namespace' Con '=' Block(Decl)
       | '@compiler' PragmaOp Version
       | 'include' String

Decl ::= 'type'     Id ['(' TVar* ')'] '=' TypeAlias
       | 'record'   Id ['(' TVar* ')'] '=' RecordType
       | 'datatype' Id ['(' TVar* ')'] '=' DataType
       | (EModifier* 'entrypoint' | FModifier* 'function') Block(FunDecl)

FunDecl ::= Id ':' Type                             // Type signature
          | Id Args [':' Type] '=' Block(Stmt)      // Definition

PragmaOp ::= '<' | '=<' | '==' | '>=' | '>'
Version  ::= Sep1(Int, '.')

EModifier ::= 'payable' | 'stateful'
FModifier ::= 'stateful' | 'private'

Args ::= '(' Sep(Pattern, ',') ')'

Contract declarations must appear at the top-level.

For example,

contract Test =
  type t = int
  entrypoint add (x : t, y : t) = x + y

There are three forms of type declarations: type aliases (declared with the type keyword), record type definitions (record) and data type definitions (datatype):

TypeAlias  ::= Type
RecordType ::= '{' Sep(FieldType, ',') '}'
DataType   ::= Sep1(ConDecl, '|')

FieldType  ::= Id ':' Type
ConDecl    ::= Con ['(' Sep1(Type, ',') ')']

For example,

record   point('a) = {x : 'a, y : 'a}
datatype shape('a) = Circle(point('a), 'a) | Rect(point('a), point('a))
type     int_shape = shape(int)

Types

Tip

This is just the lexical type doc, find the type reference here.

Type ::= Domain '=>' Type             // Function type
       | Type '(' Sep(Type, ',') ')'  // Type application
       | '(' Type ')'                 // Parens
       | 'unit' | Sep(Type, '*')      // Tuples
       | Id | QId | TVar

Domain ::= Type                       // Single argument
         | '(' Sep(Type, ',') ')'     // Multiple arguments

The function type arrow associates to the right.

Example,

'a => list('a) => (int * list('a))

Statements

Function bodies are blocks of statements, where a statement is one of the following

Stmt ::= 'switch' '(' Expr ')' Block(Case)
       | 'if' '(' Expr ')' Block(Stmt)
       | 'elif' '(' Expr ')' Block(Stmt)
       | 'else' Block(Stmt)
       | 'let' LetDef
       | Expr

LetDef ::= Id Args [':' Type] '=' Block(Stmt)   // Function definition
         | Pattern '=' Block(Stmt)              // Value definition

Case    ::= Pattern '=>' Block(Stmt)
Pattern ::= Expr

if statements can be followed by zero or more elif statements and an optional final else statement. For example,

let x : int = 4
switch(f(x))
  None => 0
  Some(y) =>
    if(y > 10)
      "too big"
    elif(y < 3)
      "too small"
    else
      "just right"

Expressions

Expr ::= '(' LamArgs ')' '=>' Block(Stmt)   // Anonymous function    (x) => x + 1
       | 'if' '(' Expr ')' Expr 'else' Expr // If expression         if(x < y) y else x
       | Expr ':' Type                      // Type annotation       5 : int
       | Expr BinOp Expr                    // Binary operator       x + y
       | UnOp Expr                          // Unary operator        ! b
       | Expr '(' Sep(Expr, ',') ')'        // Application           f(x, y)
       | Expr '.' Id                        // Projection            state.x
       | Expr '[' Expr ']'                  // Map lookup            map[key]
       | Expr '{' Sep(FieldUpdate, ',') '}' // Record or map update  r{ fld[key].x = y }
       | '[' Sep(Expr, ',') ']'             // List                  [1, 2, 3]
       | '[' Expr '|' Sep(Generator, ',') ']'
                                            // List comprehension    [k | x <- [1], if (f(x)), let k = x+1]
       | '[' Expr '..' Expr ']'             // List range            [1..n]
       | '{' Sep(FieldUpdate, ',') '}'      // Record or map value   {x = 0, y = 1}, {[key] = val}
       | '(' Expr ')'                       // Parens                (1 + 2) * 3
       | Id | Con | QId | QCon              // Identifiers           x, None, Map.member, AELib.Token
       | Int | Bytes | String | Char        // Literals              123, 0xff, #00abc123, "foo", '%'
       | AccountAddress | ContractAddress   // Chain identifiers
       | OracleAddress | OracleQueryId      // Chain identifiers

Generator ::= Pattern '<-' Expr   // Generator
            | 'if' '(' Expr ')'   // Guard
            | LetDef              // Definition

LamArgs ::= '(' Sep(LamArg, ',') ')'
LamArg  ::= Id [':' Type]

FieldUpdate ::= Path '=' Expr
Path ::= Id                 // Record field
       | '[' Expr ']'       // Map key
       | Path '.' Id        // Nested record field
       | Path '[' Expr ']'  // Nested map key

BinOp ::= '||' | '&&' | '<' | '>' | '=<' | '>=' | '==' | '!='
        | '::' | '++' | '+' | '-' | '*' | '/' | 'mod' | '^'
UnOp  ::= '-' | '!'

Operators types

Operators Type
- + * / mod ^ arithmetic operators
! && \|\| logical operators
== != < > =< >= comparison operators
:: ++ list operators

Operator precendences

In order of highest to lowest precedence.

Operators Associativity
! right
^ left
* / mod left
- (unary) right
+ - left
:: ++ right
< > =< >= == != none
&& right
\|\| right